Acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective consequences
of 'ecstasy' (MDMA) consumption in 430 regular users
Verheyden SL, Henry JA, Curran HV.
Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit,
Clinical Health Psychology,
University College London,
Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003 Oct;18(7):507-17
ABSTRACTThis study examined the reported psychological effects of different patterns of MDMA use in men and women, and how they are modified by use of other psychoactive substances. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 466 regular MDMA users, exploring the perceived acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective effects of this drug. Factor analysis established three main categories of acute effects of MDMA: (i) positive and (ii) negative effects on mental health, and (iii) physical effects. In terms of subacute effects, 83% of participants reported experiencing low mood and 80% reported impaired concentration between ecstasy-taking sessions. Factors affecting these effects included age, gender, extent of MDMA use and concomitant use of cocaine or amphetamine. The long-term effects most frequently reported included the development of tolerance to MDMA (59%), impaired ability to concentrate (38%), depression (37%) and 'feeling more open towards people' (31%). In terms of what might persuade users to stop using MDMA, their most prominent concern was the drug's long-term effects on mental healthHistory
Protect and survive
Ecstasy and serotonin synthesis