Ecstasy/MDMA attributed problems reported by
novice, moderate and heavy recreational users
Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Scholey AB,
Heffernan T, Ling J, Rodgers J.
Recreational Drugs Research Group,
School of Psychology,
University of East London, London E15 4LZ, UK.
Hum Psychopharmacol 2002 Aug;17(6):309-12
ABSTRACTRATIONALE: The recreational use of MDMA/Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is associated with many psychobiological problems, but there is a paucity of data on how these relate to the level of past use. Objectives: to assess the incidence of Ecstasy-attributed problems as reported by novice, moderate and heavy users. Methods: 763 unpaid volunteers took part in a WWW study of recreational drug use. This report is based on the 282 Ecstasy users from that sample, who comprised 109 novice users (1-9 occasions), 136 moderate users (10-99 occasions), and 36 heavy users (+100 occasions). Yes/no responses were automatically recorded to a series of questions covering psychobiological problems experienced when drug-free, which were attributed by the respondents to their Ecstasy use. Results: Depression, memory problems, anxiety, mood fluctuation, poor concentration, infections, tremors/twitches and weight loss, were all significantly associated with the extent of Ecstasy use. Thus memory problems attributed to Ecstasy were reported by 19% of novice users, 52% of heavy users and 73% of heavy users (chi-square 42.74, df=2, p<0.001); many of the other variables showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of problems attributed to Ecstasy use, is directly related to the number of occasions it has been used.Depression
Protect and survive
MDMA and immunity
Ecstasy and mental disorders
Ecstasy and serotonin synthesis
Psychiatric disorders in Ecstasy users
Serotonin, noradrenline and dopamine
Ecstasy, cognition and the stereotype threat