Inhibition of the alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complexes by a Putative Aberrant Metabolite of Serotonin, Tryptamine-4,5-dione
Jiang XR, Dryhurst G.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
University of Oklahoma, Norman,
Chem Res Toxicol 2002 Oct;15(10):1242-7
ABSTRACTA transient energy impairment with resultant release and subsequent reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and NMDA receptor activation with consequent cytoplasmic superoxide (O(2)(-)(*)), nitric oxide (NO(*)), and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation have all been implicated in a neurotoxic cascade which ultimately leads to the degeneration of serotonergic neurons evoked by methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Such observations raise the possibility that the O(2)(-)(*)/NO(*)/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation of 5-HT, as it returns via the plasma membrane transporter to the cytoplasm of serotonergic neurons when the MA/MDMA-induced energy impairment begins to subside, may generate an endogenous neurotoxin. In vitro the O(2)(-)(*)/NO(*)/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation of 5-HT forms tryptamine-4,5-dione (T-4,5-D). When incubated with intact rat brain mitochondria, T-4,5-D strongly inhibits state 3 respiration with pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate as substrates at concentrations which do not affect succinate-supported (complex II) respiration. Experiments with freeze-thawed rat brain mitochondria reveal that T-4,5-D inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. These and other properties of T-4,5-D raise the possibility that it may be an endogenously formed intraneuronal metabolite of 5-HT that contributes to the serotonergic neurotoxicity of MA and MDMA.History
Deaths in New York
Toxic metabolites of MDMA?
MDMA and sympathetic activity