Effects of Repeated Low Doses of MDMA on EEG Activity
and Fluoro-Jade B Histochemistry

by
Fornai F, Gesi M, Lenzi P, Ferrucci M, Lazzeri G, Pizzanelli C,
Pellegrini A, Battaglia G, Ruggieri S, Paparelli A.
Department of Human Morphology and Applied Biology,
University of Pisa, Via Roma, 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
f.fornai@med.unipi.it.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1025:181-8


ABSTRACT

The psychostimulant 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is an amphetamine derivative that is widely abused. In previous studies, depending on the animal species, neurotoxicity has been demonstrated for either serotonin (5-HT) or/and dopamine (DA) nerve endings. These studies focused on the basal ganglia circuitry; however, in humans chronic abuse of MDMA often results in neurological symptoms that last after MDMA withdrawal and are not related to the extrapyramidal system such as electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and cognitive impairment. These alterations might be due to the concomitant intake of other illicit compounds, the consequence of MDMA-induced hyperthermia, or to a primary neurotoxicity directed to extrastriatal regions. These observations call for a more in-depth analysis on the potential involvement of brain areas outside the basal ganglia in the toxic effects induced primarily by MDMA. In the present study, we treated C57Black mice chronically (25 days) with daily injections of MDMA (2.5 mg/kg). During treatments, mice were monitored in order to detect behavioral modifications, and epidural electrodes were installed to perform EEG recording. Behavioral data showed a sensitization as measured by locomotor activity, which related to progressive and long-lasting EEG changes and neuronal degeneration within the hippocampus.

Rats
Flies
History
Monkeys
MDMA/MDE
Controversies
Mice on Ecstasy
Protect and survive
Ecstasy and serotonin synthesis
Ecstasy and the adolescent mouse
Ecstasy, anxiety and serotonin depletion
Ecstasy: anxiolytic and anxiogenic effect
Enjoyable but non-addictive: MDMA and the mouse
Intravenous Ecstasy self-administered by drug-naive mice


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family