The pre-clinical behavioural pharmacology
of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
Cole JC, Sumnall HR.
Department of Psychology,
University of Liverpool, L69 7ZA, Liverpool, UK
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003 May;27(3):199-217.
ABSTRACT3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a relatively novel drug of abuse and as such little is currently known of its behavioural pharmacology. This review aims to examine whether MDMA represents a novel class of abused drug. MDMA is known as a selective serotonergic neurotoxin in a variety of animal species but acutely it is a potent releaser and/or reuptake inhibitor of presynaptic serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and acetylcholine. Interaction of these effects contributes to its behavioural pharmacology, in particular its effects on body temperature. Drug discrimination studies indicate that MDMA and related drugs produce unique interoceptive effects which have led to their classification as entactogens. This is supported by results from other behavioural paradigms although there is evidence for dose dependency of MDMA-specific effects. MDMA also produces conditioned place preference but is not a potent reinforcer in self-administration studies. These unique behavioural effects probably underlie its current popularity. MDMA is found in the street drug ecstasy but it may not be appropriate to equate the two as other drugs are routinely found in ecstasy tabletsMDMA
The pharmacology of Ecstasy
and further reading
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family