Links Investigating the potential neurotoxicity of Ecstasy (MDMA): an imaging approach
Reneman L, Booij J, Majoie CB, Van Den Brink W, Den Heeten GJ.
Department of Nuclear Medicine,
Graduate School of Neurosciences,
Academic Medical Centre,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Hum Psychopharmacol 2001 Dec;16(8):579-588


Human users of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') users may be at risk of developing MDMA-induced neuronal injury. Previously, no methods were available for directly evaluating the neurotoxic effects of MDMA in the living human brain. However, development of in vivo neuroimaging tools has begun to provide insights into the effects of MDMA in the human brain. In this review, contributions of brain imaging studies on the potential neurotoxic effects of MDMA and functional consequences are highlighted. An overview is given of PET, SPECT and MR spectroscopy studies, most of which show evidence of neuronal injury in MDMA users. Different neuroimaging tools are discussed that have investigated potential functional consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxic lesions. Finally, the contribution of brain imaging in future studies is discussed, emphasising the crucial role it will play in our understanding of MDMA's short- and long-term effects in the human brain.

Club drugs
Deaths in New York
Toxic metabolites of MDMA?
MDMA and sympathetic activity
A toxic intraneuronal metabolite of serotonin?
Electrophysiological evidence of 5-HT damage
Non-neurotoxic and neurotoxic serotonin-releasers
Ecstasy-induced toxicity and the dopamine transporter
5-HT, 5-HIAA, norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family