Inhibition of the alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complexes by a Putative Aberrant Metabolite of Serotonin, Tryptamine-4,5-dione
Jiang XR, Dryhurst G.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
University of Oklahoma, Norman,
Oklahoma 73019.
Chem Res Toxicol 2002 Oct;15(10):1242-7


A transient energy impairment with resultant release and subsequent reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and NMDA receptor activation with consequent cytoplasmic superoxide (O(2)(-)(*)), nitric oxide (NO(*)), and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation have all been implicated in a neurotoxic cascade which ultimately leads to the degeneration of serotonergic neurons evoked by methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Such observations raise the possibility that the O(2)(-)(*)/NO(*)/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation of 5-HT, as it returns via the plasma membrane transporter to the cytoplasm of serotonergic neurons when the MA/MDMA-induced energy impairment begins to subside, may generate an endogenous neurotoxin. In vitro the O(2)(-)(*)/NO(*)/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation of 5-HT forms tryptamine-4,5-dione (T-4,5-D). When incubated with intact rat brain mitochondria, T-4,5-D strongly inhibits state 3 respiration with pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate as substrates at concentrations which do not affect succinate-supported (complex II) respiration. Experiments with freeze-thawed rat brain mitochondria reveal that T-4,5-D inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. These and other properties of T-4,5-D raise the possibility that it may be an endogenously formed intraneuronal metabolite of 5-HT that contributes to the serotonergic neurotoxicity of MA and MDMA.

Club drugs
Liver failure
Brain damage?
Kidney damage
Deaths in New York
Tryptophan hydroxylase
Toxic metabolites of MDMA?
Quinol-thioether conjugates
MDMA and sympathetic activity

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family